The Effect of School and Student-Related Factors on PISA 2015 Science Performance in Turkey




HLM, PISA, Science Literacy, Science Performance, School Resources, School ESCS


Purpose: The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a research project conducted by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which evaluates the knowledge and skills gained by 15-year-old students over three-year terms. Within the scope of this study, the PISA 2015 data was analyzed to determine whether school-related factors (including the schools’ economic, social and cultural status (ESCS)) were related to Turkish students’ science performance. Method: Due to its nested structure, the released PISA 2015 data was analyzed using the hierarchical linear model. Two models were considered to examine how Aggregated ESCS at the school level makes a difference. Findings: Thereby in model 1 shortage of educational material, staff shortage, student behaviour, and teacher behaviour were included in the analysis; In addition to these variables listed, aggregated ESCS was also added to the analysis in Model 2. Implications for Research and Practice: The results of the analysis revealed that school-related factors - in particular, staff shortage, student behaviour, and aggregated ESCS indexes - were statistically related to students’ science performance. When the aggregated ESCS was controlled, it is observed that the school-level variables had a higher effect on students’ science performance.