Women's Gender Roles in History Textbooks in Turkey
Keywords:History textbooks, gender, gender roles
Although the notion of gender basically has a biological meaning, the concept of gender refers to a social construction that emerges from a biological basis. This construction includes cultural definitions on masculinity and femininity in a way that is more appropriate for social life. In the definition and distinction of gender roles in the construction of social life, the discussion of public and private sphere is basically seen. Textbooks have an important place as a tool of dominant discourse in the public and private sphere debate. Therefore, textbooks in general and history textbooks in particular have an important share in this debate. In this context, it is determined that the purpose of the study is to evaluate the gender roles of women in compulsory or history courses textbooks in the 2019-2020 academic year in Turkey. In the research, document analysis is carried out using case study, one of the qualitative research designs. 9, 10, 11 and 12th grade history textbooks and 11th grade elective History of Turkish Culture and Civilization, 12th grade Turkish Republic History of Revolution and Kemalism and 12th grade elective Contemporary Turkish and World History textbooks were examined. In the study, the discourse repertoires built on women's gender roles were determined using critical discourse analysis. In the textbooks, it has been determined that the gender roles of women are associated with traditional roles such as motherhood, child rearing, and sewing and embroidery. In addition, although it is argued that women are the subjects of the public sphere in the textbooks, it has been seen that the roles of the private sphere are concretized, clarified, legitimized and reproduced with various examples. As a result, history textbooks have been shaped in a male-dominated structure and the basic discourse produced from this is that women are a part of private life, not the public sphere.